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Actinide - A heavy, radioactive element with an atomic number greater than 8 (actinium) and less than 103 (lawrencium). The actinide series include uranium (atomic number 92) neptunium (93), plutonium (94), and americium (95).

Americium - A fissionable, artificial element that can be used to produce nuclear explosives. The principal isotope, americium 241, is created as a result of the decay of plutonium 241. Other important isotopes are americium 242 and 243.

Australia Group - The members belonging to this group have agreed to adopt controls on dual-use chemicals, i.e., weapons precursors, equipment, and biological microorganisms and related equipment in order to prevent the proliferation of chemical and biological weapons. Member countries as of October 1996 include: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Luxemburg, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovak Republic, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

Beams-Type centrifuge - A centrifuge design based on an unclassified 1940s or 1950s design by Jessie Beams, a well-known and widely published professor at the University of Virginia. Beams is universally recognized as a pioneer in the development of gas centrifuges.

Cascade - A connected series of enrichment machines, material from one being passed to another for further enrichment.

Centrifuge process - An enrichment method that separates gaseous isotopes by rotating them rapidly in a spinning tube, thereby subjecting them to centrifugal force. To increase the amount of separation in a centrifuge, various techniques are used to induce a vertical 'countercurrent' flow in the gas. Centrifuges are either 'subcritical' or 'supercritical.' A subcritical centrifuge rotor has a length to diameter ratio such that it runs optimally at an angular velocity below the first fundamental flexural critical frequency. At these critical frequencies, the rotational energy of the spinning rigid body is transferred into large displacements from the axis of rotation, breaking the rotor unless mechanical actions are taken to reduce the displacement amplitudes. A supercritical centrifuge operates above the first critical frequency, and avoids damaging effects associated with resonances by mechanical methods such as damping mechanisms and bellows (flexible joints connecting rotor tubes together that act like a spring).

CNC machines - Computer numerically controlled machine, which uses a computer to do interpolation cycles of more than one axis; this is required for advanced, high precision machining.

Cold traps - Protects equipment by trapping moisture and other contaminants.

Commerce Control List (CCL) - A list of items under the export control jurisdiction of the Bureau of Industry and Security, U.S. Department of Commerce. Note that certain additional items described in part 732 of the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) are also subject to the EAR. The CCL is found in Supplement 1 to part 774 of the EAR.

Commerce Control List (CCL) Category - The CCL is divided into ten categories: (0) Nuclear Materials, Facilities and Equipment, and Miscellaneous; (1) Materials, Chemicals, "Microorganisms," and Toxins; (2) Materials Processing; (3) Electronics Design, Development and Production; (4) Computers; (5) Telecommunications; (6) Sensors; (7) Navigation and Avionics; (8) Marine; (9) Propulsion Systems, Space Vehicles, and Related Equipment.

Commerce Control List (CCL) Group - The CCL is divided into 10 categories. Each category is subdivided into five groups, designated by the letters A through E: (A) Equipment, assemblies, and components; (B) Test, inspection and production equipment; (C) Materials; (D) Software; and (E) Technology.

Consignee - Person to whom commodities/technology is being shipped. Can be an agent holding material for another.

Controlled country - A list of countries designated controlled for national security purposes found in Country Group D:1 (See Supplement Bo. 1 to part 740 of the EAR). This list was established under authority delegated to the Secretary of Commerce by Executive Order 12214 of May 2, 1980 pursuant to section 5(b) of the EAA, and including: Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Cambodia, the People's Republic of China, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Mongolia, Romania, Tajikstan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, and Vietnam. Cuba and North Korea are controlled countries, but they are listed in Country Group E:2 (unilateral embargoes) rather than Country Group D:1.

Critical mass - The minimum mass required to sustain a chain reaction. The exact mass varies with many factors such as the particular isotope present, its concentration and chemical form, the geometric arrangement of the material, and its density.

Customs officer - The Customs officers in the U.S. Customs Service and postmasters, unless the context states otherwise.

Declared facility - A facility that has been declared to the International Atomic Energy Agency (or other inspection authority) and is made available for inspection in accordance with relevant safeguards obligations. In a non-nuclear weapon state party to the NPT, this includes all operating nuclear facilities. In a nuclear weapon state it includes only facilities designated by the state.

De facto nuclear weapon state - A non-nuclear weapon state that is not a party to the NPT and possesses unsafeguarded nuclear facilities and a nuclear weapons program. Typically refers to India, Israel, or Pakistan.

Denied Persons List - A list, referenced in Supplement No. 2 to part 764 of the EAR, of specific persons that have been denied export privileges, in whole or in part. The full text of each order denying export privileges is published in the Federal Register.

Depleted uranium - Uranium containing less than 0.71 percent uranium 235. Produced as a by-product of the uranium enrichment process.

Disposition - The disposal of plutonium or enriched uranium, especially stocks arising from dismantled nuclear weapons.

Dual-use - Items that have both commercial and military or proliferation applications. While this term is used informally to describe items that are subject to the EAR, purely commercial items are also subject to the EAR (see 734.2(a) of the EAR).

Diversion - The deliberate removal of fissionable material in civil fuel cycles for prohibited uses, or the intentional misuse of a civil item for military purposes.

Effective control - You maintain effective control over an item when you either retain physical possession of the item, or secure the item in such an environment as a hotel safe, a bonded warehouse, or a locked or guarded exhibition facility. Retention of effective control is a condition of certain temporary exports and reexports.

Electromagnetic Isotope Separation (EMIS) - Separation of isotopes by the use of electromagnetic fields.

End-use - A detailed description of how the ultimate consignee intends to use the commodities being exported.

End-user - The person abroad that receives and ultimately uses the exported or reexported items. The end-user is not a forwarding agent or intermediary, but may be the purchaser or ultimate consignee.

Enrichment - The process of increasing the concentration of one isotope of a given element (in the case of uranium, increasing the percentage of uranium 235).

Export - Export means an actual shipment, transfer, or transmission of items out of a country; a transfer of goods or technology within a country with the knowledge or intent that the goods or technology shipped, transferred, or transmitted to an unauthorized recipient; or the transfer of goods or information in a country to an embassy or consulate of a foreign country.

Export control - The set of laws, policies, and regulations that govern the export of sensitive items for a country or company.

Export Control Classification Number (ECCN) - Identifies items on the Commerce Control List that are subject to the export licensing authority of the Bureau of Industry and Security.

Exporter - The person who has authority of a principal party in interest to determine and control the sending of items out of the country.

Export license - The approval documentation issued by an export agency authority authorizing the recipient to proceed with the export, reexport, or other regulated activity as specified on the application.

Export Trigger List - Under Nuclear Supplier's Group guidelines, a list of nuclear-related equipment and materials that may be exported only if the recipient country accepts full-scope IAEA safeguards.

Fertile material - Material composed of atoms that readily absorb neutrons to produce fissile material. One such material is uranium 238, which becomes plutonium 239 after it absorbs a neutron. Fertile material alone cannot sustain a chain reaction.

Fissionable material - A material whose nuclei can be induced to fission by a neutron.

Fissile material - Material composed of atoms that fission when irradiated by slow or "thermal" neutrons. The most common are uranium 235 and plutonium 239. The term is often used to describe plutonium and HEU, e.g., a cutoff in the production of fissile materials. Uranium 233 is also fissile.

Flow forming machine - Flow forming is a process that takes a thick-walled tube, or "pre-form," and stretches it while under great pressure. In particular, flow forming is used to make rotationally symmetrical hollow parts. A pre-formed blank is clamped between the mandrel and tail stock and rotated. A characteristic of the process is that the metal is formed by localized compression resulting from the radial pressure of the rollers. The metal is made to flow and, in a single roller pass, assumes the contour of the mandrel inside. Cylindrical flow forming enables long tubes to be formed, where three rollers, offset at 120o are in contact with the metal.

Foundry - An establishment for producing castings in molten metal; the act or process of founding or casting metal, or the category of metal objects made by founding; castings

Forwarding agent - This is the person in the country of origin who is authorized by a principle party in interest to perform the services required to facilitate the export of the items from the country of origin. This may include air couriers or carriers. In routed export transactions, the forwarding agent and the exporter may be the same for compliance purposes under the EAR.

Front company - Often the initial buyer, these are companies that are set up to acquire technology and sensitive items legally and then export it illegally to an authorized recipient.

Fuel grade plutonium - Plutonium containing from 7 to 18 percent plutonium 240.

Gas-centrifuge process - See "centrifuge process."

Gaseous diffusion - A method of isotope separation based on the fact that gas atoms or molecules with different masses will diffuse through a porous barrier (or membrane) at different rates. The method is used to separate uranium-235 from uranium-238. It requires large plants and significant amounts of power.

Good - Any article, natural or man-made substance, material, supply, or manufactured product, including inspection and test equipment, and excluding technology.

Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) - Uranium in which the percentage of uranium 235 is raised ("enriched") from a natural level of 0.71 percent to greater than 20 percent-usually 90 percent. All HEU can be raised to make nuclear explosives, although a very large quantity is required for HEU enriched to only 20 percent.

Hot cell - Shielded room with remote handling equipment where highly radioactive materials can be safely examined and processed. Hot cells are typically used to handle and inspect spent reactor fuel or targets.

Immobilization - Process of isolating materials, either directly or indirectly, in a matrix of vitrified high-level nuclear waste. Often refers to a particular plutonium disposition technique.

Intermediate consignee - The person that acts as an agent for a principal party in interest for the purpose of effecting delivery of items to the ultimate consignee. The intermediate consignee may be a bank, forwarding agent, or other person who acts as an agent for a principal party in interest.

Irradiated fuel - See "spent fuel."

Isotope - Atoms having the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons. Two isotopes of the same atom are chemically similar to each other, and therefore difficult to separate, but may have different nuclear properties. Isotopes are designated by their atomic mass numbers (total number of protons and neutrons). Uranium 235 and uranium 238 are isotopes.

Low-enriched uranium (LEU) - Uranium containing over 0.71 and less than 20 percent uranium 235. Most modern light water power reactors use 3 - 5 percent LEU. LEU is insufficiently enriched in uranium 235 to be used for nuclear explosives.

Material Protection Control and Accountancy (MPC&A) - Systems and procedures that are designed to deter, prevent, and detect the removal of fissile materials by unauthorized personnel.

Maraging steel - Special hardened steel used in fabrication of centrifuge rotors and rocket motors. Typically, gas centrifuge programs seek a controlled 350 grade maraging steel.

Mixed oxide (MOX) fuel - Nuclear fuel composed of a mixture of uranium and plutonium oxide.

Model Protocol - A legal instrument containing important aspects of the International Atomic Energy Agency's strengthened safeguards. Codified as INFCIRC/540, the protocol needs to be ratified by the individual state before these measures can be implemented. See also "safeguards" and "strengthened safeguards."

Natural uranium - Uranium containing 0.71 percent uranium 235.

Naval propulsion reactor - See "propulsion reactor."

Neptunium 237 - A fissionable, artificial isotope that can be used to produce nuclear explosives. Neptunium is created by irradiating uranium 235 or uranium 238 in a nuclear reactor or through the decay of americium 241.

Non-nuclear weapon state - Any state that did not manufacture and explode a nuclear weapon or other nuclear explosive device before January 1, 1967. Non-nuclear weapon states that are party to the NPT are obligated to sign comprehensive safeguards agreements with the International Atomic Energy Agency to ensure that declared civil nuclear materials are not being diverted to military purposes (under recently strengthened safeguards) to verify the absence of undeclared fissile material production facilities.

Nuclear Supplier's Group - A group of states that agree to certain conditions on the export of nuclear-related "dual-use" materials, items and technologies, as defined in annexes to INFCIRC/254 rev. 4.

Nuclear weapon state - Any state that manufactured and detonated a nuclear weapon or other explosive device prior to January 1, 1967. Refers to China, France, Russia (as the successor to the Soviet Union), the United Kingdom and the United States.

Packaging - One or more receptacles and wrappers and their contents, excluding any special nuclear material, source material or byproduct material, spacing structures, thermal insulation, radiation shielding, devices for cooling and for absorbing mechanical shock, external fittings, neutron moderators, nonfissile neutron absorbers and other supplementary equipment.

Physical security - Measures to reasonably ensure that source or special nuclear material will only be used for authorized purposes and to prevent theft or sabotage.

Plutonium 239 - A fissile, artificial isotope created when uranium 238 captures a neutron through irradiation. Plutonium 239 is one of the principal materials used for nuclear weapons, the other being uranium 235.

Plutonium 240 - An isotope produced in nuclear reactors when uranium 239, instead of decaying to plutonium 239 or fissioning, absorbs a second additional neutron. Its presence complicates the construction of nuclear explosives because of its high neutron emission and heat output.

Power reactor - A nuclear reactor designed to produce electricity, as distinguished from other reactors used primarily for research or for the production of radiation or fissionable materials.

Procurement channels - Ways in which unauthorized users seek sensitive technology and items. In most cases, these procurement efforts are illegal and done in secret.

Production reactor - A nuclear reactor designed principally for the large-scale production of weapon-grade plutonium.

"Programme 93+2" - See "strengthened safeguards."

Propulsion reactor - Nuclear reactor configured for the propulsion of naval ships and submarines.

Purchaser - The person abroad who has entered into a transaction to purchase an item for delivery to the ultimate consignee. In most cases, the purchaser is not a bank, forwarding agent, or intermediary. The purchaser and ultimate consignee may be the same entity.

PUREX process - One particular method of reprocessing spent fuel. See also reprocessing.

Reactor grade plutonium - Plutonium containing over 18 percent plutonium 240.

Reexport - "Reexport" means an actual shipment or transmission of items subject to export regulations from one foreign country to another foreign country. For the purposes of the U.S. EAR, the export or reexport of items subject to the EAR that will transit through a country or countries to a new country, or are intended for reexport to the new country, are deemed to be exports to the new country.

Refractory metal - Metal that is difficult to fuse, corrode, reduce, or draw out; capable of enduring or resisting high temperature.

Reprocessing - The chemical treatment of spent fuel to separate and, usually, isolate one or more elements (in most cases, plutonium and uranium) from unwanted radioactive byproducts.

Research reactor - A nuclear reactor primarily designed to produce neutrons for research purposes. Such reactors are also used for training, materials testing, and radioisotope production.

Routed export transaction - A transaction where the foreign principal party in interest authorizes U.S. forwarding or other agents to facilitate export of items from the U.S.

Safeguards - Technical and inspection measures for verifying that nuclear materials are not being diverted from civil to other uses. See also strengthened safeguards.

Sensitive item - An item concerned with or held vital to national security by reason of dealing with highly restricted information and materials; demanding or intended to be treated with a high degree of discretion and unquestioned loyalty.

Separative work - A measure of the effort required in an enrichment facility to separate uranium of a given uranium 235 content into two fractions, one with a higher percentage of uranium 235 and one with a lower percentage. The unit of measure is the kilogram separative work unit (SWU).

Significant quantity - The approximate amount of nuclear material (not just fissile material), which the International Atomic Energy Agency considers that a state would need to manufacture its first nuclear explosive. Eight kilograms of plutonium and 25 kilograms of weapon-grade uranium are considered significant.

Specially Designated National (SDN) - Any person who is determined by the U.S. Secretary of the Treasury to be a specially designated national for any reason under regulations issued by the Office of Foreign Assets Control.

Specially Designated Terrorist (SDT) - Any person who is determined by the U.S. Secretary of the Treasury to be a specially designated terrorist under notices or regulations issued by the Office of Foreign Assets Control.

Specially Designed (MTRC context) - Equipment, parts, components or software that, as a result of development, have unique properties that distinguish them for certain predetermined purposes. For example, a piece of equipment that is "specially designed" for use in a "missile" will only be considered so if it has no other function or use. Similarly, a piece of manufacturing equipment that is "specially designed" to produce a certain type of component will only be considered such if it is not capable of producing other types of components.

Spent fuel - Fuel elements that have been removed from a reactor after use because they contain too little fissile and fertile material and too high a concentration of unwanted radioactive by-products to sustain reactor operation. Spent fuel is both thermally and radioactively hot.

Strengthened safeguards - Set of measures adopted by the International Atomic Energy Agency to better enable IAEA inspectors to verify that states have not initiated clandestine fissile material programs. Developed through "Programme 93+2." Certain aspects of strengthened safeguards are formalized in the Model Protocol. See also "Model Protocols" and "safeguards."

Technical assistance - Technical assistance may take forms such as instruction, skills training, working knowledge, consulting services, and may also involve the transfer of technical data.

Technical data - May take forms such as blueprints, plans, diagrams, models, formulae, tables, engineering designs and specifications, manuals and instructions written or recorded on other media or devices such as disk, tape, or read-only memories.

Technology - Any specific information and know-how (whether in tangible form, such as models, prototypes, drawings, sketches, diagrams, blueprints, manuals, software, or in intangible form, such as training or technical services) that is required for the development, production, or use of a good, but not the good itself.

Tonne - Metric ton, equivalent to 1,000 kilograms or 2,200 pounds.

Turn-key facility - A facility supplied or installed complete and ready to operate.

Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information (UCNI) - In 1982, the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 was amended by adding Section 148, which allows for the prohibition of unauthorized dissemination of certain unclassified U.S. Government information that could reasonably be expected to have a significant adverse effect on public health and safety or the common defense and security by significantly increasing the likelihood of (a) illegal production of nuclear weapons or (b) theft, diversion, or sabotage of nuclear materials, equipment, of facilities.

Undeclared facility - A nuclear facility that has not been declared to the International Atomic Energy Agency (or other inspection authority). In the non-nuclear weapons states, undeclared facilities may constitute a violation of relevant safeguards agreements.

Ultimate consignee - The principal party in interest located abroad who receives the exported or reexported items. The ultimate consignee is not a forwarding agent or other intermediary, but may be the end-user.

Uranium 233 - A fissile, artificial isotope that can be used to produce nuclear explosives. Created when thorium 232 captures a neutron through irradiation.

Uranium 235 - The only natural occurring fissile isotope. Natural uranium contains only 0.71 percent of uranium 235.

Uranium 238 - The principal isotope (99.3 percent) of natural uranium, the other being uranium 235.

Uranium Oxide (U3O8) - The most common oxide found in typical ores. U3O8 is extracted from the ore during the milling process. The ore typically contains 0.1 percent U3O8; yellowcake, the product of the milling process, contains about 80 per cent U3O8.

Uranium hexaflouride (UF6) - A volatile compound of uranium and fluorine. UF6 is a solid at atmospheric pressure and room temperature, but can be transformed into gas by heating. UF6 gas (alone, or in combination with hydrogen or helium) is the feedstock in most uranium enrichment processes and is sometimes produced as an intermediate product in the process of purifying yellowcake to produce uranium oxide.

Weapon-grade plutonium - Plutonium containing less than 7 percent plutonium 240.

Weapon-grade uranium - Uranium enriched to more than 90 percent uranium 235.

Weapon-grade uranium equivalent (WGU-eq) - The amount of weapon-grade uranium (93 percent) is equivalent to an HEU stock of another enrichment. Often refers to the amount of weapon-grade uranium that could have been produced from the total separative work output, assuming a typical tails of 0.3 percent. This procedure is used when the actual enrichment level of the HEU is unknown, although most of the HEU is believed to be weapon-grade uranium.

Weaponization - The process of making a nuclear explosive device "deliverable" so that it can be used as part of a weapon system (i.e., bomb or warhead).

Y-12 facility - Located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the location of the first EMIS facility.

Yellowcake - A concentrate produced during the milling process that contains about 80 per cent U3O8. In preparation for uranium enrichment, the yellowcake is converted to uranium hexafloride gas (UF6). In the preparation of natural uranium reactor fuel, yellowcake is processed into purified uranium dioxide. Sometimes uranium hexaflouride is produced as an intermediate step in the purification process.

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