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The following are some resources to understand export controls and their implementation.

Internet Sources

Hoover's Online: This website contains over 14,000 company profile briefs. Each profile includes basic company information as well as links to additional information on the company, all of which is provided free of charge.

Wright Investor's Service: This site provides a comprehensive detailed analysis of over 18,000 companies worldwide, including Russia. You can search by company, country, or industry. Each profile provides a brief synopsis of the company's vital statistics as well as the company's financial information. You must be a member for this information.

Global Edge: Global Edge allows you to research various countries by providing company directory links established by each respective country. You can view each available country's (including Russia's) statistics, history, economy, government, in addition to the company database links.

Thomas Global Register: Thomas Global Register allows users to search by product/service or company. For each available company, the register includes contact information, areas of activity, employee information, as well as the opportunity to request quotes or specific documentation from the company.

Written Sources

Company Directories

Moody's International Manual: It includes nearly 11,000 corporations, sovereigns and their municipalities, and national and supranational institutions in 117 countries.

Hoover's Company Reports: Hoover's Company Reports, as well as other books in the series such as Hoover's Handbook of American Business 2000, Hoover's Handbook of World Business, and Emerging Companies 2000, all provide useful sources of company information. While most of the material contained in these handbooks can be found on the Hoover website, Hoover's.com, the books provide additional company histories that the website does not.

Thomas Register of American Manufacturers & Thomas Register of European Manufacturers: Again, the information provided in these books can also be found on the internet.

International Directory of Company Histories: This book summarizes the company's history as well as providing occasional updates.

Canadian Key Business Directory: Lists top 20,000 Canadian companies.

Europe's 15,000 Largest Companies: European companies listed by country and industry.

Guardian Guide to the UK's Top Companies: Lists the UK's 150 largest public and private companies.

Major Companies of the Far East & Australasia: Lists 6,000 largest companies in Asia and the Pacific.

Principal International Businesses: Lists 50,000 leading businesses throughout the world.

World Business Directory: Lists 140,000 businesses involved in international trade.

Worldwide Branch Locations of Multinational Companies: Lists 26,000 overseas subsidiaries, branches, and offices of 500 of the world's principle multinational companies.

Country Profiles

Encyclopedia of Global Industries: Chronicles the history, development, and current status of 115 international industries.

Europa World Yearbook: The best first place to look for country information. Detailed annual economic and political survey for every country. Includes information on recent history, industry, trade, government, political organizations, judicial system, religion, broadcast and print media, and transportation.

Europe Review: Annual economic and business report for every European country. Includes Balkan states.

OECD Economic Outlook: Biannual analysis of latest economic trends and short-term projections for OECD member states and selected non-member states.

OECD Economic Survey (various call numbers, in circulating collection): Book length economic surveys for each country. Published every two years.

Exporting Directories

American Export Register: Lists 40,000 U.S. manufacturers and distributors engaged in export/import trade. Organized into 1,200 product categories.

Directory of United States Exporters: Geographical listing of U.S. exporters. Includes alphabetical product index. Also covers customs regulations and procedures.

Exporters' Encyclopedia: Provides essential exporting information for over 170 world markets. Covers trade contacts, regulations, shipping documentation, marketing data, and business travel.

Guidebooks to Proper International Exporting

Encyclopedia of Business Information Sources: Business resources for over 1000 business topics.

International Business Information - How to Find it, How to Use it: Key international business publications and databases.

International Marketing Resource Guide: Basic resources for international direct marketing.

World Trade Resources Guide: Directory of 11,000 trade contacts and information sources. Covers the 80 largest trading nations of the world.

Organizational Programs

The New York Public Library, Science, Industry and Business Library, provides a database of books referencing Worldwide Business Directories. The Monterey Institute for International Studies also maintains a comprehensive open source database regarding media reports on various end-users.

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) developed a Guideline for Nuclear Transfers, INFCIR 254, which establishes fundamental principals for safeguards and export control for certain nuclear-related or dual-use exports.

Governmental Agencies & Programs

There are other useful resources to take advantage of to ensure that the entity that you are seeking to conduct business with is legitimate. There are many lists of specific individuals and/or entities that companies are not permitted to export to. The State Department oversees the Debarred Parties List that names individuals that have been denied export privileges according to the International Trade in Arms Regulations, and the Commerce Department's Bureau of Industry and Security maintains a Denied Person's List. The Treasury Department's Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) maintains such resources and reference data as embargoed countries lists, the Specially Designated Nationals (SDN) and the Specially Designated Global Terrorists (SDGTs) List, which lists individuals and entities that are prohibited based pursuant to various sanction programs. SDNs can be front companies, parastatals, or individuals to be owned or controlled by, or acting on the behalf of, targeted countries or groups. SDNs can also be specifically identified individuals such as terrorists.

The U.S. Department of Commerce developed an Entities List of end-users that have been determined to present an unacceptable risk of diversion to weapons of mass destruction programs. The list is frequently updated, and for the latest edition, see the Supplement No. 4 to part 744 of the Export Administration Regulations.

Here is an example of the kind of information found on the Entities List.

Supplement No. 4 to Part 744 - ENTITY LIST

CHINA, PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF13 Institute, China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology, (CALT), aka 713 Institute or Beijing Institute of Control DevicesFor all items subject to the EAR.See 744.3(d) of thispart.66 FR 24265 5?14/01
33 Institute, aka Beijing Institute of Automatic Control EquipmentFor all items subject to the EAR having a classification other than EAR99 or a classification where the third through fifth digits of the ECCN are "999," e.g., XX999.See 744.3(d) of this part.66 FR 24266, 5/14/01
35 Institute, aka Beijing Huahang Radio Measurements Research InstituteFor all items subject to the EAR having a classification oter than EAR99 or a classification where the third through fifth digits of the ECCN are "999," e.g., XX999.See 744.3(d) of this part.66 FR 24266, 5/14/01

The German Chamber of Industry and Commerce has established the Federal Export Agency to control illegal technology transfers. This agency is described by Dr. oec. Hans Kolb in his paper, "Realization and Implementation of Export Regulations Tightened since 1990/92 in Export-Oriented Companies in Germany," which he presented at the "Second International Workshop on Nuclear Export Controls," a conference sponsored by ISIS and IPPE Export Control Laboratory in Obninsk, Russia in April 2002. Dr. Kolb is the Director of the International Department of Germany's Chamber of Industry and Commerce.

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